عنوان مقاله [English]
Ahmadabad deposit is the northernmost old mine of Kuhbanan-Bahabad belt, located 10 km NE of Bahabad and is located in the stratigraphic sequence of calcareous-dolomitic Shotori formation. The predominant form of mineralization of Pb and Zn deposits in the region is of vein type, fissure, filling and substitution. Previous studies on the Ahmadabad deposit have considered the sedimentary genesis of the mineral to be sedimentary and the dolomitization to be due to the process of burial diagenesis in a lagoon environment. Due to the fact that the dolomites of the region are the main hosts of mineralization and a large amount of minerals are located in these rocks, the present study has focused on these rocks.
Materials and Methods
Dolomite-Carbonate units form the main volume of rocks in the area. Necessary information for investigating the genesis of dolomites was obtained from thin-polished cross-section, stable isotopic oxygen data and ICP-MS analysis, which was performed inside and outside Iran.
Results and Discussion
Microscopic studies show that dolomite crystals are formed in two stages and are visible with a gradual transition border and in some cases sharp border. The bright dolomites of the first stage darken in the next stage. Delayed dolomites are rhomboids with a sharp border and their outer part is covered by iron hydroxides. It is possible that the dolomites are oxidized due to stunted growth of Calcite cement within cavities bounded by dolomite, the presence of some calcite adjacent to dolomites, thick or thin zoning of the sharp boundary between calcite and dolomite, corrosion and dissolving at the junction, the presence of small amounts of Sulfides, oxides. Also, Cu-carbonates with lateral dolomite residues may indicate delayed formation of the oxidized margin of the dolomite. These features are compatible with the characteristics of hydrothermal dolomites in other parts of the world, such as hydrothermal dolomites southwest of the Cantabrian region of Spain. Isotopic data indicate the range of changes of δ18O-SMOW oxygen isotopic composition in the dolomitic rock of Ahmadabad deposit between 23.1‰ to 28.2‰. This value is close to the values reported in other hydrothermal dolomites of the world. The average values of δ18O-PDB in Shotori dolomites of Kuhbanan range are equal to -6.47‰. This value is also in the δ18O-PDB range of other hydrothermal dolomites. Comparison of Fe/Mg ratio in host rock and mineral also shows a 35-fold decrease in this ratio in the host rock. Studies have also shown the relative high level of deposit elements in the host unit. The available data indicate that Mg is used in the mineralization of hydrothermal fluids in the process of dolomitization of carbonate units. Hydrothermal fluids during mineralization have increased compared to poor Mg and its’ Fe content. Comparison of distribution patterns between minerals and rocks in the region shows an undeniable similarity between these minerals and carbonate rocks. The relationship ( also reveals the increase and enrichment of rare earth elements in light to heavy types. The average ratio in carbonate units is 14.24. This ratio for minerals averages 14.63 and is very close to the average of total carbonates.
The findings of this study showed that the dolomites of the Shotori Formation in the study area were formed under the influence of hydrothermal solutions of metal-rich basins, which were also responsible for mineralization. Evidence from microscopic studies and stable isotopic data of δ18O-SMOW is consistent with the characteristics of hydrothermal dolomites in other parts of the world. The similarity of the normalized patterns of REEs in the host rock and mineral as well as the consistency of the variation in the ratio of Fe and Mg elements between the mineral and the host rock also confirm the result obtained. The similarity of the of the REEs of the host rock and mineral and the concordance of the ratio of Fe and Mg elements between the mineral and the host rock also confirm the result obtained.