مخاطرات طبیعی، یک چالش اساسی در دستیابی به توسعه است. در پاسخ به این چالش، مفهوم تابآوری وارد عرصههای علمی شده است. امروزه علاوه بر مخاطرات زمینساختی، مسئله تغییرات آبوهوایی نیز جوامع انسانی را تهدید میکند و بهطور گستردهای به عنوان چالش اصلی جهان قرن حاضر شناخته میشود. نواحی ساحلی به دلیل حساسیت بالای محیطی از شکنندگی بیشتری نسبت به تغییرات آبوهوایی برخوردارند؛ بهطوری که از این نواحی، به مکانهایی با افزایش شوکها و مخاطرات اقلیمی یاد میشود. در مواجه با این مخاطرات، شناخت و آگاهی ساکنان و مسئولین بسیار حائز اهمیت است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی میزان تابآوری و شناخت ساکنان و مسئولین شهر بابلسر از تغییرات اقلیمی انجام شده است. به همین منظور، از روشهای اسنادی و میدانی (تکمیل پرسشنامه و مصاحبه با افراد) و دادههای آبوهوایی استفاده شده است. دادههای جمعآوری شده، توسط آزمونهای آماری و در نرمافزارهای SPSS و Excel مورد پردازش قرار گرفت و به صورت جداول، نمودار و نقشه ارائه گشت. با توجه به یافتههای تحقیق و نتایج آزمون منکندال، شهر بابلسر روند افزایشی دما، دمای کمینه و روند کاهشی بارش را تجربه میکند. در مقابل آن آگاهی و شناخت کم ساکنین و مسئولین شهری نسبت به مفاهیم تابآوری، تغییر اقلیم و فقدان آموزش، تبادل اطلاعات و نظرخواهی از ساکنین در طرحها و برنامهها و در نتیجه، تابآوری پایین در برابر مخاطرات ناشی از تغییر اقلیم به اثبات رسیده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis and upgrade resilience of coastal cities against the risk of climate change (case study: Babolsar city)
Natural hazards have always been a major challenge in achieving development. Humans, as one of the most important inhabitants of the planet, play a decisive role in its evolution. Population growth, technological advances, rapid and unplanned urbanization, poor performance of city managers and planners, insufficient awareness, unplanned urban development, altered urban environment and physical structure, have made urban dwellers more vulnerable. This rapid and unplanned growth in addition to social, economic and cultural problems poses a serious threat to the environment and natural resources. Increasing human exploitation of nature and natural factors have implications such as increasing pollution, social and economic problems, changing climate, changing physical conditions of cities and overall imbalances in population and environmental capacity. In response to this challenge, the concept of resilience has entered the scientific realm. This concept calls for a quick return to the pre-crisis conditions. Today, in addition to tectonic hazards, the issue of climate change and its associated hazards also threaten human societies. Coastal areas are more vulnerable to climate change due to high environmental sensitivity. These areas face increasing challenges and shocks and climate risks. In response to climate change, greenhouse gas emission reduction is often on the agenda, but today, this reduction process alone will not be enough to cope with the climate changes. The success of climate change mitigation programs depends on actions taken locally. City administrators who have been interacting for climate change policies should adopt better policies. In the face of these risks, it is important to know the residents and municipal authorities.
Materials and Methods
To collect the required data documents and field methods (questionnaire and interview) was used and data was obtained from two groups of residents of Babolsar and urban authorities (Municipality, Governorate, Road and Urban Planning Department, Engineering organization, Electricity Department, Water Department, Agricultural Jihad, Education Department, Red Crescent, Crisis Management). Weather data (from the Meteorological Organization) has also been used. The collected data were processed by statistical tests in SPSS and Excel software and presented in tables, graphs and maps.
Results and Discussion
Finally, according to the research findings, it can be stated that in the face of risks, increased resilience should be considered. Resilience is not only about reinforcing a building but also understanding the concept and understanding its solutions, prior to the structure. This will provide grounds for increasing resilience in all dimensions. Babolsar was selected as the study site in the study, because the city has been experiencing signs of climate change in recent decades and experienced risks in recent years. The findings of this study confirm the low level of knowledge of residents and authorities of the coastal city of Babolsar about climate change and resilience. Most people do not have sufficient knowledge of the ways to cope with the created conditions or the potential risks posed by climate change and this has reduced the resilience of local communities.
Awareness, information and education can be considered by authorities as a practical solution. But the low level of knowledge of urban officials has added to these problems. The lack of long-term plans and the right understanding and analysis of the risks, the lack of climate change adaptation and surveillance plans are problems of the Babolsar coastal institutions. In the face of climate change, public participation is an important factor in managing cities, especially sensitive areas such as coastal cities. Improving the areas of public participation and opinion poll planning and formulation is a major guarantee for dealing with the unknowns. Increased awareness and recognition, self-assessment of local communities, a sense of belonging and results from the implementation of urban governance policy can be very effective in fragile coastal environments. In Babolsar, there has been no exchange of information and communication between local communities and authorities, and this lack of coordination has made both groups less resilient. All the shortcomings expressed along with the increase in urban population in coastal cities and climate change has increased the vulnerability of these areas. Further study of coastal cities and making recommendations to improve the understanding of local communities and urban authorities about the phenomenon of climate change is inevitable.