جنگ یکی از پیچیدهترین پدیدههای اجتماعی است که به دلیل ماهیت، اهداف و ابعاد آن پیامدهای اقتصادی- اجتماعی غیر قابل پیشبینی در جوامع درگیر آن برجای میگذارد. جنگ ذاتا نابود کننده توسعه پایدار است. در سال 1358 هجری شمسی جنگی ناخواسته در طول مرزهای غربی و جنوب غربی ایران از جانب عراق بر ایران تحمیل شد و در تمام این مدت، محیط زیست طبیعی و انسانی کشور مورد آماج تخریب و نابودی قرار گرفت. استراتژیهای جنگی نظیر ساختن پل روی رودخانهها و نهرها، ایجاد موانع جنگی، احداث خاکریزها و سنگرهای بزرگ سطحی و زیرزمینی، همگی باعث برهم زدن اکوسیستم منطقه شده و نیز استفاده از ماشینآلات مهندسی و رزمی و جنگافزارها باعث صدمات جبرانناپذیر زیستمحیطی شده است. درگیر بودن مستقیم بخشی از استان کرمانشاه در جنگ باعث شد تا اولویتهای صنعتی، پژوهشی و زیستمحیطی به سمت اهداف جنگ معطوف شود و به بیان بهتر، آب و محیط زیست تحتتاثیر شرایط اضطرار از اولویت خارج شد و تمرکز بر حفظ تمامیت ارضی و مرزها معطوف شد. لذا، حکمرانی طبیعی از حالت عادی خارج شده و به اضطرار تبدیل گردیده است. متعاقب آن، خسارات سنگین بر اکوسیستمهای آبی و منابع آب در استان کرمانشاه وارد شد. در این مطالعه سعی شده است با بررسی سوابق و پیشینه حکمرانان بالارتبه و میانرتبه مرتبط با حکمرانی منابع آب در ایران و استان کرمانشاه در بازه زمانی هشت ساله جنگ و مقایسه آن با هشت سال پس از جنگ، به بررسی آثار جنگ تحمیلی ایران و عراق بر حکمرانی منابع آب در استان کرمانشاه پرداخته شود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of the Iran-Iraq war on the water resources management and governance in Kermanshah province
IntroductionWater resources are one of the key assets and infrastructure of any country that is vulnerable to war and terrorist attacks. Water infrastructure such as dams can be directly targeted by air strikes. Challenges of governing water resources and the environment during wartime include the destruction of vegetation, the contamination of water resources and infrastructure by munitions and military vehicles and the pollution and erosion of soil. This study attempts to examine the effects of the imposed war on the governance of water resources and the environment by examining the records and backgrounds of high and middle-ranking managers in Kermanshah province during the eight-year period of the imposed war and the eight-year period after the end of the war.Materials and methodsThis study was conducted based upon the data extracted from: (1) the archives of the Islamic Revolution Documentation Center, (2) the National Library, and (3) the media. To this end, a list of top and middle managers in organizations whose performance is related to water resources and the environment was first prepared. Then, their scientific and executive background relevancy to their position was evaluated.DiscussionOne of the general effects of wars is the destruction of water infrastructure by the enemy. Among these incidents in Kermanshah province, the following can be mentioned:- Destruction of Tangab Now water source in Qasr-e-Shirin city;- Destroying and damaging the water transmission lines of Qasr-e-Shirin;- Poisoning the water source of Melleh Dizgeh village in the city of Thalas-e-Babajani;- Chemical bombing of Zardeh village in Dalahou city, which polluted the village spring;- Releasing water and swamping the lands around the Gilan-e-Gharb to Qasr-e-Shirin road;- Existence of undiscovered mines in the agricultural and environmental fields of Qasr-e-Shirin and Gilan-e-Gharb cities, which has prevented the development of water infrastructure with appropriate progress.In Kermanshah province, most dams and water structures have been constructed and become operational after the end of the imposed war, which shows the high potential of water resources in Kermanshah province. Therefore, the occurrence of the imposed war has caused a long delay in the design and construction of water resources management tools.An examination of the records and background of the Ministry of Energy during the Iran-Iraq war shows that after the Islamic Revolution, in the structure of the executive branch, there was still a tendency and emphasis on using specialized and educated personnel related to the nature of the Ministry of Energy; However, the urgency of the war led to a particular sensitivity to the background of individuals; Thus, all the ministers after Hassan Abbaspour were revolutionary and militant forces whose commitment to the new government of Iran had been proven, despite the lack of connection between their expertise and the nature of the Ministry of Energy.By the end of 1988, there were only three groundwater observation boreholes in Kermanshah province. However, with the end of the war, the number of groundwater observation boreholes increased and reached to more than 300 by 2020. Also, the number of hydrometric stations in Kermanshah province until the end of the imposed war in 1988 was about 38 stations, while the number until 1997 was about 45 and by 2020 about 60 stations were operational. These statistics shows that in Kermanshah province, the occurrence of the imposed war has delayed the completion of the water resources monitoring network.ConclusionThis study showed that the occurrence of war, in addition to having immediate and direct damage, has indirect and long-term consequences. Among these effects, we can mention the disruption of the mechanism of management and governance of water resources and the environment. The Islamic Revolution in Iran led to the emergence of a golden period in which it was possible to rebuild and restore the governance system of water resources in Iran. However, the outbreak of the imposed war in Iran caused the country to re-enter the state of war emergency. Therefore, the occurrence of the imposed war in Iran caused the delay of managerial stability and in addition to the immediate consequences, the indirect destructive effects of the delay in the management and governance of proper water resources are undeniable.