بررسی اثرات بازآفرینی در پایداری اجتماعی- فرهنگی محله‌های تاریخی (پژوهشی در محله ایران، منطقه 12 تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.52547/esrj.12.1.202

چکیده

محله ایران در منطقه دوازده شهر تهران، یکی از کانون‌های اجرای برنامه‌های بازآفرینی شهری شناخته می­شود. به همین دلیل این پژوهش به‌صورت توصیفی تحلیلی، با هدف بررسی و ارزیابی تأثیرات برنامه‌های بازآفرینی بر بهبود شرایط اجتماعی، فرهنگی این محله تاریخی- فرهنگی از طریق  بررسی و تحلیل کیفیت محیط و تعاملات فرهنگی و اجتماعی قبل و بعد از برنامه‌های بازآفرینی انجام شده است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت میدانی و کتابخانه­ای است. حجم جامعه آماری تمامی واحدهای مسکونی و تجاری آن به تعداد 265 واحد است. حجم نمونه براساس فرمول کوکران به تعداد 160 واحد انتخاب‌ شده و روش نمونه­گیری نیز به‌صورت تصادفی- سیستماتیک بوده است. در تحلیل داده­ها، از آزمون t-test با دو نمونه جفتی استفاده ‌شده است. نتیجه پژوهش گویای آن است که اهمیت و شرایط اجتماعی محله ایران قبل از برنامه بازآفرینی دارای میانگین 49/3 و بعد از آن، با اندکی نزول به 3/3 رسیده است. شرایط فرهنگی نیز پس از بازآفرینی دارای میانگین 81/3 بوده که نسبت به قبل از آن، تغییری نکرده است. این‌گونه قابل استنباط است که وضعیت اجتماعی-فرهنگی محله ایران، نسبتاً بهبود یافته، اما تأثیرات برنامه­های بازآفرینی کالبدی محله بسیار کم بوده که علل آن‌هم بررسی و تحلیل شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey effects of the socio-cultural regeneration in sustainability of historic neighborhood (A research in Iran neighborhood, district 12, Tehran)

نویسنده [English]

  • Zohreh Fanni
Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
In the past two decades, with the development and prioritization of sustainable urban regeneration patterns, new areas have entered the urban planning literature of the world. The rapid urbanization process has had an impact on the structure of cities, in particular, the housing system of the neighborhood in the center and the old texture of the city. Meanwhile, perhaps the most important problem is the decline in the collective spirit and social and cultural status of the old neighborhoods. The “Iran neighborhood” in Tehran and the 12th municipality district of Tehran has dominant commercial functions and valuable historical and cultural fabric. Meanwhile, problems such as physical exhaustion, imbalance among different urban utilities, the declining population of its old residents and the acceptance of a new population, have led to a decline in neighborhood dynamics and vitality. The conditions and characteristics of the “Iran Avenue” in the heart of Tehran are due to the centralized relationships and systems throughout the history of contemporary Iranian cities. Nevertheless, in spite of being located in Tehran's metropolitan area, in the past few decades, the “Iran neighborhood” has been subjected to declining spatial, economic, social, cultural and environmental values. Therefore, this research firstly identifies the causes and factors and then analyzes them through questionnaires. It deals with questions such as how urban regeneration plans influenced the promotion of socio-cultural status of the “Iran neighborhood” and the challenges and opportunities of urban regeneration at “Iran neighborhood”. The corresponding hypotheses of the research questions are as follows: a) the implementation of the urban regeneration plan has promoted the socio-cultural status of the Iran neighborhood; b) the strategic location of the Iran neighborhood is conservative, in the sense that along with the weaknesses, there are many future potentials for improvement of neighborhood status.
Method and Materials
The research method is descriptive and analytical and in terms of purpose it is applied-development. Data and information are gathered in both field and library methods. In field surveys, questionnaire and observation has been used. In library studies, all the documents related to the subject matter of the research have been investigated. The data of the questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS software using T-test with two pairs of samples. Research indicators have been extracted from two social dimensions (sense of place, social capital, inclusiveness) and cultural (local identity, memorable experience, pride in place). The focus of this study is on the physical conditions of the residential and commercial district of Iran neighborhood in the 12th district of Tehran in relation to the cultural, social and economic bases of the families living in it. It compares the status quo with the ideal state of the model. The study of the causes and trends of degradation and exhaustion of old texture and important historical and cultural centers in the metropolises of Iran neighborhood is a necessity for planning and implementation of practical projects. Due to widespread changes in fabric, these urban centers have suffered from functional, socio-economic, biological and physical disadvantages which have diminished vitality, dynamism, and collective spirit. The purpose of this research has been to identify and analyze the causes and factors affecting the reduction of socio-cultural values ​​of historical neighborhoods, the evaluation of the effects of regeneration activities in the neighborhood and the provision of appropriate solutions for advancement of the social- cultural situation.
Discussion and Conclusion
The socio-cultural status of the Iran neighborhood before the regeneration is above average, but it cannot be considered quite desirable. The cultural status of the neighborhood has a mean score of 3.81 and its social status, has a mean score of 3.49. This indicates that the neighborhood has had a high status among residents prior to the implementation of regeneration projects. But among the following social indicators, the spatial sense of 4.16 and social capital with an average of 3 have earned the highest and lowest scores respectively. Respecting the cultural index, the spatial identity with a score of 4.18 is higher than average, indicating favorable conditions among the underlying cultural indicators. The lowest average is for the honor index to the place, with an average of 3.55. The contributing factors to the socio-cultural status of the Iran neighborhood before being regenerated can be analyzed in several issues, including the existence of a cultural identity deriving from the presence of politicians and prominent political figures; a uniform and traditional body structure which is a factor for promotion of social indicators, social capital, face-to-face interactions and communications. In the past, Iran neighborhood's streets largely had cultural-political functions that increased the pride of the place, the sense of belonging and even the survival of residents to reside there. The low population and sheltered residence due to the proudness of the neighborhood have been factors influencing its socio-cultural status.
Results
Findings of the research show that the cultural status of the Iran neighborhood before and after the regeneration have no significant difference. However in some of the following indicators, there are slight differences in social and cultural status. According to field studies, regeneration has not been carried out in all parts of the neighborhood. For this reason, the difference in the implementation of programs, along with factors such as the lack of participation of citizens and stakeholders, it didn’t have a positive impact. It reduced social and cultural status in general. The results of previous applied or fundamental researches indicate the positive impact of regeneration on sustainable neighborhood indicators, but in this research, contrary to these results, the average of most sub-indices are not consistent with previous studies. The reason for this was also examined in SWAT model. The results of the SWAT model indicated major challenges, such as neglecting development actors in the design and implementation process of urban regeneration projects. The lack of urban regeneration plans, resulted in these programs being implemented in a cross-sectional and limited manner. A growing trend of demolition and renovating buildings, eliminated the identity and cultural values ​​of the neighborhood and independent identification of them. These are serious obstacles to sustainable neighborhood development. Multilateral cooperation between government, private sector and popular institutions in bringing in investment in regeneration projects can be one of the most important strategies to highlight the role of civil and private institutions, in addition to allocating appropriate funding.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • regeneration
  • Tehran City
  • Socio-cultural identity
  • Historic neighborhood
  • Sustainability
  • Iran neighborhood
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