Hydrogeochemical assessment of Cheshmeh Kileh catchment (Mazandaran Province) by ArcGIS and AqQA software, case comparison of Dohezar and Sehezar sub-basins

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Geology, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

2 Department of Geology, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.


Introduction: Rivers are crucial for the society because they provide fresh water for agriculture, human needs, industry and transportation. Therefore, water quality assessment has been considered as an important issue by many researchers in the field of hydrology and hydrogeology. Water quality is influenced by natural and anthropogenic effects including local climate, geology, irrigation practices and the use of water resources.
Materials and methods: Cheshmeh Kileh catchment is one of the most important basins in the west of Mazandaran province and has two main tributaries, Dohezar and Sehezar, which, after surveying mountainous areas, join in a plain area and form the Cheshmeh Kileh river. This catchment originates from Nosha Heights, northern heights of Alamut and Alam Kooh Glacier. According to the Meteorological Organization report, it has a humid climate with hot summers and slightly cold winters. The center of gravity and grading of the canals were determined using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Sampling points were determined based on the degree of waterway and possible terrestrial and anthropogenic pollutants. After sampling, the samples were sent to the laboratory to determine the concentration of the main anions and cations, Acidity, TDS, Conductivity and Alkalinity. To study the hydrogeochemical changes in the catchment area, Piper, Durov, Stiff, Schoeller and radial Plot diagrams were drawn in AqQA software and Gibbs diagram and role index diagram were drawn in Excel. Then the process of hydrochemical evolution, type and hydrochemical facies of water were determined and the hydrogeochemical control mechanism was investigated.
Results and discussion: The two sub-basins of rivers Dohezar and Sehezar have different chemical compositions of water at the source, which are influenced by the lithology of the region in their path, and finally, by joining together, the water type has evolved as bicarbonate-calcium. In the meantime, the sample that originates from the landfill effluent (CH16) also flows into this river, but due to the high volume of water flowing in the river, it does not have a significant effect on the overall water quality downstream. According to the Gibbs diagram, the main factor controlling water chemistry in the Cheshmeh Kileh catchment is the chemical weathering of the minerals that make up the rocks, and only in the CH16 sample (landfill) was the anthropogenic factor effective. Also, with the help of the roll index, it was found that saline seawater or trapped fossil saline water did not affect the composition of ions in the surface water of this catchment. With the help of the models provided for the Stiff diagram by Hounslow, the origin of water in CH1 sample was determined from gypsum lithology and other samples were mostly from limestone lithology. The presence of gypsum interlayers in the structure of Karaj Formation upstream of CH1 station in Maran village can be a proof of this analysis. Based on the relationship between origin and water composition, the origin of some stations was identified from the dissolution of evaporative rocks and others due to dewatering of silicates.
Conclusion: In general, it can be concluded that the chemical composition of water in Cheshmeh Kileh catchment has been affected by dissolution and oxidation of calcites and sulfides, as well as oxidation and weathering of silicates and sulfides.


Main Subjects

-Abbaspour, R., Alizadeh Sabet, H.R., Hedayati Fard, M. and Mesgaran Karimi, J., 2012. Biological evaluation of Cheshme Kileh Tankabon river (Mazandaran province) using biological indicators, population structure and fauna of benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of Aquatics and fisheries, v. 2(8), p. 63-76 (in Persian).
-Asgharai Moghaddam, A., Nadiri, A.A. and Sadeghi Aghdam, F., 2020. Investigation of groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics of Naqadeh plain aquifer and heavy metal pollution index (HPI), Scientific Quarterly Journal, Geosciences, v. 29(115), p. 97-110, https://dx.doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2018.127310.1464 (in Persian).
-Al-Bassam, A.M., Awad, H.S. and Al-Alawi, J.A., 1997. Durov plot: a computer program for processing and plotting hydrochemical data. Journal of Groundwater, v. 35(2), p. 362-367. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.1997.tb00094.x
-Annells, R.N., Arthurton, R.S., Bazley, R.A.B., Davies, R.G., Hamedi, M.A.R. and Rahimzadeh, F., 2000. Geological map of IRAN, 1:100000 Shakran. Geological survey & mineral exploration of IRAN (GSI). Series sheet 6162.
-Baharfirouzi, Kh., Nadim, H., Shafeii, A.R., Sahandi, M.R., Vahdati Daneshmand, F., Nazari, H. and Khannazer, N.H., 2000. Geological map of IRAN, 1:100000 Ramsar. Geological survey & mineral exploration of IRAN (GSI). Series sheet 6163 (in Persian).
-Erfanian Kaseb, H., Torshizian, H.A., Jahani, D., Javanbakht, M. and Kohansal Ghadimvand, N., 2020. Studying Evolutionary Processes of Petergan Playa Brines in South Khorasan, East of Iran. Journal of Geopersia, v. 10(2), p. 333-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/geope.2020.287814.648497
-GharehMahmoodlu, M., Jandaghi, N. and Sayadi, M., 2020. Hydrochemical evaluation and qualitative deterioration assessment of Gorganrud River, Iranian Journal of Geology, v. 14(55), p. 129-145.
-Gibbs, R.J., 1970. Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry, Journal of Science, v. 170(3962), p. 1088-1090. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.170.3962.1088  
-Guest, B., Axen, G.J., Lam, P.S. and Hassanzadeh, J., 2006. Late Cenozoic shortening in the west-central Alborz Mountain, northern Iran, by combined conjugate strike slip and thin-skinned deformation, Journal of Geosphere, v. 2, p. 35-52.
-Hakimi Asiabar, S., 2019. Structural deformations of Dona mine, Scientific Quarterly Journal of Geosciences, v. 28(110), p. 235-246. https://dx.doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2017.78835.1052 (in Persian).
-Hasanipak, A.A., 2017. Geostatistics: Tehran University Printing and Publishing Institute, 5th, 314 p (in Persian).
-Hounslow, A.W., 1995. Water quality data: analysis and interpretation. CRC press, 1st Edition. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203734117
-Javanbakht, M., Asadi, V. and Dabiri, R., 2020. Evaluation of Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolutionary Process of Groundwater in Jajarm Plain, Northeastern Iran. Environment and Water Engineering, v. 6(3), p. 206-218. https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/jewe.2020.232598.1366 (in Persian).
-Jones, B.F. and Deocampo, D.M., 2014. Geochemistry of saline lakes. Treatise on geochemistry, v. 5, 605 p.
-Kumar, M.S. and Khan, F.L.A., 2015. Analysis of groundwater quality of some selected stations of Palar Riverbed in Vellore district, Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, v. 2(5).
-Lloyd, J.W. and Heathcote, J.A.A., 1985. Natural inorganic hydrochemistry in relation to groundwater. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
-Mahrooyan, F., Taghavi, L., Sarai Tabrizi, M. and Babazadeh, H., 2021. Water Quality Assessment of Qazvin River Using NSFWQI Index for Water Quality Classification, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, v. 12(1), p. 99-112. http://jweb.ahvaz.iau.ir/article-1-855-en.html (in Persian).
-Mohammadihadi, H., Kalantari, N., Anbari, A. and Pahlavanizadeh, S., 2021. Hydrochemical assessment of the Jareh Dam water resources; using multivariate statistical techniques and hydrochemical methods, Journal of Advanced Applied Geology, v. 10(4), p. 620-633. https://dx.doi.org/10.22055/aag.2020.29692.1993 (in Persian).
-Piper, A.M., 1944. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water‐analyses, Journal of Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, v. 25(6), p. 914-928.  https://doi.org/10.1029/TR025i006p00914
-Rice, E.W., Bridgewater, L. and American Public Health Association (Eds.)., 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (v. 10). Washington, DC: American public health association.‏
-Richards, L.A., Fox, B.G., Bowes, M.J., Khamis, K., Kumar, A., Kumari, R. and Polya, D.A., 2022. A systematic approach to understand hydrogeochemical dynamics in large river systems: Development and application to the River Ganges (Ganga) in India, Water Research, v. 211, p. 118054.‏
-Safari, M., Hezarkhani, A. and Mashhadi, S.R., 2020. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and water quality of Aji-Chay river, eastern catchment of Lake Urmia, Iran, Journal of Earth System Science, v. 129, p. 1-15.
-Schoeller, H., 1965. Qualitative evaluation of groundwater resources, Methods and techniques of groundwater investigations and development, UNESCO, 83 p.
-Singh, A.K., Raj, B., Tiwari, A.K. and Mahato, M.K., 2013. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes and groundwater quality in the Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region, India. Journal of Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 70(3), p. 1225-1247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2209-7
-Singh, K.R., Goswami, A.P., Kalamdhad, A.S. and Kumar, B., 2020. Assessment of surface water quality of Pagladia, Beki and Kolong rivers (Assam, India) using multivariate statistical techniques. International Journal of River Basin Management, v. 18(4), p. 511-520.
-Talabi, A.O., 2017. The Suitability of Groundwater for Domestic and Irrigation Purpose; a case study of Ikere Ekiti, SW Nigeria. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB), v. 2(1), p. 181-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.1.23
-Tharmar, E., Abraham, M., Prakash, R., Sundaram, A., Flores, E.S., Canales, C. and Alam, M.A., 2022. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Assessment in the Thamirabarani River Stretch by Applying GIS and PCA Techniques, Sustainability, v. 14(24), p. 16368.
-Yazdi, M., 2002. Conventional methods in geochemical exploration: Shahid Beheshti University, 1th, 192 p (in Persian).
-Yotova, G., Varbanov, M., Tcherkezova, E. and Tsakovski, S., 2021. Water quality assessment of a river catchment by the composite water quality index and self-organizing maps: Journal of Ecological indicators, v. 120, p. 106872.