نیل به توسعه پایدار از رهگذر گردشگری شهری مورد پژوهی: شهر زیراب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

گردشگری به عنوان یکی از مولفههای اثرگذار بر رشد و توسعه اقتصادی در ادبیات جهان شناخته شده است.
مدیران و برنامهریزان همواره در پی سیاستگذاری برای بهرهگیری از مزایای گردشگری و کاهش آسیبها آن
بودهاند. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی گردشگری و نقش آن به دنبال بررسی تاثیرات مثبت و منفی
گردشگری بر ابعاد گوناگون پایداری شهری به ویژه شهرهای کوچک است. بنابراین شهر کوچک زیر آب به دلیل
وجود پتانسیلهای طبیعی و تاریخی با وجود مشکلات پیش رو برای توسعه گردشگری پایدار به عنوان نمونه
مورد مطالعه انتخاب شده است. روش پژوهش، پیمایشی و دادهها از طریق پرسشنامه کارشناسان جمعآوری
شده است. نتایج پژوهش در سطح کارشناسان (10 نفر) بیانگر تاثیر متفاوت (مثبت یا منفی) گردشگری در ابعاد
پایداری شهری است. افزایش قیمت زمین و مسکن و در نتیجه هزینههای خانوار، تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی
و تراکم و شلوغی و گسترش فیزیکی شهر از پیامدهای منفی و رشد اقتصادی و اشتغال، کاهش فقر، توجه به
ثروت اکولوژیکی و فرهنگ محلی، سرمایهگذاری و گسترش خدمات و ارائه آن به مسافران و گردشگران از اثرات
مثبت گردشگری در شهر زیر آب بوده است. افزون بر آن تحلیل نظر ساکنان (100 نفر) به صورت معادلات
ساختاری تببین شده است که تحلیل این مدل بیانگر تاثیر بیشتر گردشگری بر بعد کالبدی و اجتماعی شهر
بوده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Achieving sustainable development through urban tourism (case study: Zirab city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Ghaderi
  • Seyed Sepehr aarabi
Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Today, tourism has gained more and more importance as one of the rapidly growing economic sectors and it has become a fundamental source and driver of socio-economic development in many cities, both in developed and developing countries. Tourism allows sustainable employment and enhancement of the quality of life. However, Iranian cities have not yet succeeded in making use of the resources and potentials of tourism, in spite of all ancient heritage and numerous unique natural attractions. The present study aims to provide a pattern for tourism development and sustainability by using quantitative methods (T test, Friedman, binomial, Wilcoxon, Pearson, Path Analysis) as well as SWOT and QSPM techniques to evaluate factors affecting tourism in the city of Zirab, north of Iran (as a case study). In the next step the relationship between tourism with urban sustainability is analyzed.
Methods and Materials
The research method is descriptive and analytical and in terms of purpose it is applied -developmental. The method of data collection is document study and field survey. We have used questionnaire, observation and experts’ views on tourism planning, through field surveys. In library studies, all the documents related to the subject of the research have been investigated. The data of the questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software using T-test. Research indicators consist of economics, social, managerial-institutional and environmental dimensions.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results show that the unique natural and social attractions and cultural traditions of Zirab and its location (this city is located in the tourism axis of Tehran – Mazandaran) are the most important positive factors (strengths and opportunities) affecting the tourism of this city. On the contrary, lack of integrated tourism management, changes in use of agricultural land due to the development of villa construction, poor marketing and advertising in the tourism sector, the risk of increasing natural hazards due to human intervention in nature, the prevalence of construction in pristine areas, increased traffic and contamination caused by passengers and the presence of strong regional rivals in the tourism sector are the most important negative factors affecting this city. In addition, analyses showed that although tourism had positive impacts on Zirab city in most management, physical and economic variables, it has caused major environmental problems such as change of use and increased pollution. Also, real estate prices have increased and since the physical development has occurred in this city as a result of the construction of villas in pristine areas, the historical and cultural heritage of the city has declined and traffic congestion has increased.
Results
Considering the multidimensionality of these problems which are mostly derived from the current structural activities as well as the way tourism is developing, it is recommended that a link be established between ecotourism, structural elements of Zirab city and sustainable tourism development approach, which eventually lead to the urban sustainability. Within this linked network, tourism development can play a significant role in Zirab sustainability, since it is not a partial approach. Tourism is clearly linked to the place where it occurs and it will establish relationships with local resources, activities, products, corps and services. At the same time it will result in local people’s participation in both planning and development of tourism in Zirab City.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tourism
  • Sustainable development
  • zirab city
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