بررسی ریزساختارهای کنترل‌کننده دگرسانی و کانه‌زایی در کانسار آهن خسروآباد، شمال خاوری سنقر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه ژئوشیمی، دانشکدۀ علوم زمین، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

10.52547/esrj.13.1.21

چکیده

کانسار اسکارن آهن خسروآباد، در بخشی از زون فلززایی آهن باختر کشور (سری سنقر) و در شمال باختری پهنه سنندج – سیرجان واقع شده است. واحدهای زمین­شناسی منطقه خسروآباد شامل متاآندزیت­بازالتی، آهک­های اسلیتی و متبلور (مرمر) ژوراسیک میانی تا پسین و توده­های نفوذی کوارتزمونزونیتی و سینیتی ائوسن بالایی است. عملکرد نیروهای تکتونیکی باعث ایجاد شکستگی در واحد متاآندزیت ­بازالتی شده و شرایط مناسبی را برای گسترش دگرسانی و کانه­زایی فراهم کرده است. اعمال تنش­های تکتونیکی در واحد متاآندزیت ­بازالتی اسکارنی­شده، اسلیت آهکی و توده­های نفوذی، ساختارهایی مانند ساب­گرین­شدگی و تبلور مجدد بلورهای کوارتز و آلکالی ­فلدسپار، بافت کاتاکلاستیکی و میلونیتی، جهت­یافتگی موازی در اسلیت­های آهکی، تشکیل ساختار میکاماهی در بلورهای مگنتیت، حاشیه مضرس و پدیده ان–اشلون و کینک­باند در بلورهای پلاژیوکلاز را ایجاد کرده است. کوارتز بی­شکل و با خاموشی­موجی، بیانگر رخداد تنش در آنهاست. با توجه به موقعیت زمین­شناسی و ساختاری و نیز براساس مطالعات پتروفابریکی، دو تیپ کانه­زایی شکنا و شکل­پذیر در کانسار آهن خسروآباد قابل شناسایی است. بیشترین تمرکز کانه­زایی مگنتیت در پهنه بُرشی شکنا شامل ریزشکستگی ها، رگه­ها و رگچه­های موجود در واحد متاآندزیت­بازالتی اسکارنی­شده است. این رگچه­ها به صورت موازی و متقاطع با برگوارگی میلونیتی دیده می­شوند. کانه­زایی تیپ شکل­پذیر به صورت پروتومیلونیت و اولترامیلونیت با ژئومتری عدسی­شکل و همروند با برگوارگی غالب منطقه گسترش دارد. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که تنش­های تکتونیکی در کانسار اسکارن آهن خسروآباد در تغییرات عیاری و گسترش کانه­زایی نقش کلیدی داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of microstructures controlls on alteration and iron mineralization in Khosrow Abad deposit, Northeastern of Sonqor

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Ebrahimi Fard
  • Behzad Mehrabi
  • Majid Ghasemi Siani
Department of Geochemisty, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Kharazmi University, Theran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Metamorphism, magmatism and metasomatism were active in the Sonqor series and have a significant effect on the geological fate of the region (Mohajjel, 1997). Petrofabric analysis of metamorphic rocks is an effective method in recognizing mechanism of orogenic belt evolution and its’ relationship with plate tectonics (Twiss and Moores, 1992). Emplacement of intrusive bodies associated with tectonic event provide suitable conditions for skarnification, mineralization, alteration and metasomatism in the regions. Tectonic deformation caused the mylonitization of intrusive bodies and metamorphic rock fabric, which is related to orogenic evolution and plate tectonics. Since tectonic structures are considered as the main controllers of mineralization in such areas, it is vital to study tectonics, structures and deformation phases and their affiliation with mineralization for understanding the geometry, grade control and location of associated mineralization.
Material and methods
Microstructures in the Khosrow-abad region were studied during two field surveys mainly in the mineralized area. Fifty-three thin and thin polished sections of skarnified meta basaltic andesite rock units, slatic- and crystalline limestone (marble), quartz monzonitic and syenitic intrusive bodies were prepared and studied using Zeiss Axio-Plan2 research optical microscope in mineralogy laboratory of Kharazmi University in Tehran.
Results and discussion
Iron ore mineralization in the Khosrow-Abad deposit can be divided into two types according to the geological and structural features and also based on micro-texture fabrics:
1) Ductile type mineralization; the host rock of this type of mineralization is skarnified limestone. Ductile mineralization occurred in Khosrow Abad region in a zone with lens-shaped geometry. Ductile shear zones are also affected by sodic (albite) and magnesium (serpentine and talc) metasomatism. Results of the analyzed samples taken from trenches and boreholes in ductile shear zone indicate low grade iron mineralization associated with highly deformed sections with sodic and magnesium alteration.
2) Brittle type mineralization; the host rocks of the mineralization are alternate of volcanic (meta basaltic andesite) and skarnified rocks with strong deformation. The high-grade iron ore in Khosrow-Abad deposit is associated with brittle deformation. This type of mineralization, which is exposed in the inner parts of the mylonitic zones of the region, includes fractures, veins and oxide-sulfide veins-veinlets that are parallel and intersecting the mylonitic foliation. It seems that the normal faults’ related strain field has led to remobilization, migration, and re-concentration of iron ore along these faults. Deformations has provided suitable spaces and conduits for channeling hydrothermal fluids, causing leaching, alteration and mineralization, even sometimes re-concentration of iron ore. Therefore, the parallel and intersecting joints with mylonitic foliation, has caused a voluminous migration of mineralized fluids and ore deposition within these sub-structures. The highest iron ore grade is observed in the intensely fractured brittle deformation, associated with fragmentation and displacement of mylonitic units and bonds.
Conclusion
The occurrence of vein or replacement structures in the Khosrow-Abad skarn iron deposit is due to the flow of mineralization fluids along the joints and fractures created due to tectonic deformation in the host and intrusive rocks. The tectonic forces caused the occurrence of ductile and brittle shear zones in the region. Considering the association of intense alteration and metamorphism with high-grade iron ore in Khosrow-Abad deposit, it can be concluded that metasomatism and hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the region, is controlled by deformations and their intensity. The brittle deformation along with the fractures, provide a suitable space and conduits for the influx of mineralized fluids and ultimately the ore precipitation as veinlets, veins, lensoids and deformation fabrics, that controls the magnetite mineralization and its’ grade.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone
  • Tectonic stress
  • Khosrow Abad
  • Sonqor series
  • Mineralization
-آقانباتی، ع.، 1383. زمین­شناسی ایران، چاپ 2، انتشارات سازمان زمین­شناسی و اکتشافات معدنی کشور، تهران، 586 ص.
-آرسته، ا.، 1372. گزارش اکتشاف کانی­های آهن­دار منطقه سنقر، مهندسین مشاور ایران­کانش، اداره کل معادن و فلزات استان کرمانشاه، وزارت صنایع و معادن.
-آرسته، ا.، 1375. طرح اکتشاف مقدماتی سنگ آهن خسروآباد (فاز دو)، مهندسین مشاور ایران کانش، اداره کل معادن و فلزات استان کرمانشاه، وزارت صنایع و معادن.
-ابراهیمی­فرد، ح.، مهرابی، ب. و قاسمی سیانی، م.، 1398. پتروگرافی و مراحل اسکارن­زایی کانسار آهن خسروآباد، شمال خاور سنقر، سی و هشتمین گردهمایی ملی علوم زمین، سازمان زمین­شناسی و اکتشافات معدنی کشور، 8 ص.
-ابراهیمی­فرد، ح.، 1399. شیمی کانی­ها و ژئوشیمی پهنه­های اسکارنی در کانسار آهن خسروآباد، شمال خاوری سنقر، پایان­نامه کارشناسی­ارشد، دانشگاه خوارزمی، 320 ص.
-اشراقی، ص.ع.، جعفریان، م.ب. و اقلیمی، ب.، 1375. نقشه زمین­شناسی 1:100000 و گزارش حاشیه ورقه سنقر، سازمان زمین­شناسی کشور.
-حسامی، ع.، 1381. گزارش اکتشافات ژئوشیمیایی سیستماتیک در محدوده برگه 1:100000 قروه، شرکت توسعه علوم زمین، اداه کل صنایع و معادن استان کردستان، وزارت صنایع و معادن.
-سامانی، ب.، 1391. گزارش پایان عملیات اکتشاف سنگ­آهن خسروآباد، شهرستان سنقر، شرکت نگین کاوان نوید پارس، 108 ص.
-سهیلی، م. و شهرابی، م.، 1361، گزارش زمین­شناسی ذخایر سنگ آهن مجموعه همه­کسی همدان، سازمان زمین­شناسی کشور، 19 ص.
-شرکت مهندسین مشاور پیچاب کانسار، 1396. گزارش عملیات ژئوفیزیک سیستماتیک به روش مغناطیس­سنجی و تهیه نقشه توپوگرافی 1:1000 در محدوده معدنی خسروآباد (استان کرمانشاه)، 60 ص.
-صمدی، س.، رساء، ا. و معانی­جو، م.، 1393. کاربرد داده­های ریز­کاو الکترونی در تعیین تیپ کانسار آهن خسروآباد، سنقر. پژوهش­های دانش زمین، سال 5، شماره 18، ص 63-74.
-طباطبائی، س.ه. و نصرت ماکوئی، ت.، 1373. گزارش نهائی طرح مطالعات ژئوفیزیک آنومالی­های آهن­دار، اداره کل معادن و فلزات استان کرمانشاه، وزارت صنایع و معادن. 
-متولی، ک.، 1384. کانی­شناسی، ژئوشیمی و منشأ کانسارهای آهن خسروآباد و تکیه بالادر شمال خاوری سنقر، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، 144 ص.
-متولی، ک.، قادری، م. و رشید نژاد، ن.ا.، 1385. کانی­شناسی، ساخت و بافت و زایش کانسار آهن خسروآباد، شمال خاوری کرمانشاه، فصلنامه علوم زمین، 10 ص.
 
 
 
-Alavi, M., 2004. Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran and its proforeland evolution. American journal of Science, v. 304, p. 1-20.‏
-Angerer, T. and Hagemann, S.G., 2010. The BIF-hosted high-grade iron ore deposits in the Archean Koolyanobbing Greenstone Belt, Western Australia: structural control on synorogenic-and weathering-related magnetite-, hematite-, and goethite-rich iron ore: Economic Geology, v. 105, p. 917-945.‏
-Angerer, T., Hagemann, S.G. and Danyushevsky, L., 2013. High-grade iron ore at Windarling, Yilgarn Craton: a product of syn-orogenic deformation, hypogene hydrothermal alteration and supergene modification in an Archean BIF-basalt lithostratigraphy: Mineralium Deposita, v. 48, p. 697-728.‏
-Angerer, T., Duuring, P., Hagemann, S.G., Thorne, W. and McCuaig, T.C., 2015. A mineral system approach to iron ore in Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic BIF of Western Australia. In: Jenkin, G.R.T., Lusty, P.A.J., McDonald, I., Smith, M.P., Boyce, A.J., Wilkinson, J.J. (Eds.), Ore Deposits in an Evolving Earth. Geological Society of London, p. 81-115.
-Austin, N.J. and Evans, B., 2007. Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, v. 35, p. 343-346.‏
-Austin, N. and Evans, B., 2009. The kinetics of microstructural evolution during deformation of calcite. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, p.114(B9).‏
-Azizi, H. and Moinevaziri, H., 2009. Review of the tectonic setting of Cretaceous to Quaternary volcanism in northwestern Iran: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 47, p. 167-179.
-Baltazar, O.F. and Zucchetti, M., 2007. Lithofacies associations and structural evolution of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: A review of the setting of gold deposits. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 32, p. 471-499.‏
-Barker, A.J., 2013. An introduction to metamorphic textures and microstructures: Oxford University Press, 289 p.
-Barnhoorn, A., Bystricky, M., Burlini, L. and Kunze, K., 2004. The role of recrystallisation on the deformation behaviour of calcite rocks: Large strain torsion experiments on Carrara marble. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 26, p. 885-903.
-Bestmann, M., Kunze, K. and Matthews, A., 2000. Evolution of a calcite marble shear zone complex on Thassos Island, Greece: microstructural and textural fabrics and their kinematic significance. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 22, p. 1789-1807.‏
-Bestmann, M. and Prior, D.J., 2003. Intragranular dynamic recrystallisation in naturally deformed calcite marble: a case study by means of misorientation analysis: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 1597-1613.
-Braud, J. and Bellon, H., 1975. Donnees nouvelles sur le domaine metamorphique de Zagros (Zone de Sanandaj-Sirjan) au niveau de Kermanshah-Hamedan (Iran): nature, age et interpretation des series metamorphiques et des intrusion, evolution structural, Eclog. Helvet.
-Braud, J. and Aghanabati, A., 1978. 1:250000 Geological map of Kermanshah, Geological Survey and Mining of Iran.
-Burkhard, M., 1993. Calcite twins, their geometry, appearance and significances as stress strain markers and indicators of tectonic regime: a review. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 15, p. 351-368.
-Ceriani, S., Mancktelow, N.S. and Pennacchioni, G., 2003. Analogue modelling of the influence of shape and particle/matrix interface lubrication on the rotational behaviour of rigid particles in simple shear. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 2005-2021.‏
-de Ronde, A.A., Heilbronner, R., Stünitz, H. and Tullis, J., 2004. Spatial correlation of deformation and mineral reaction in experimentally deformed plagioclase–olivine aggregates: Tectonophysics, v. 389, p. 93-109.
-de Ronde, A.A., Stünitz, H., Tullis, J. and Heilbronner, R., 2005. Reaction-induced weakening of plagioclase– olivine composites: Tectonophysics, v. 409, p. 85-106.
-de Souza Martins, B., Lobato, L.M., Rosière, C.A., Hagemann, S.G., Santos, J.O.S., Villanova, F.L.D.S.P. and de Ávila Lemos, L.H., 2016. The Archean BIF-hosted Lamego gold deposit, Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero: Evidence for Cambrian structural modification of an Archean orogenic gold deposit. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 72, p. 963-988.‏
-De Meer, S., Drury, M.R., De Bresser, J.H.P. and Pennock, G.M., 2002. Current issues and new developments in deformation mechanisms, rheology and tectonics: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 200, p. 1-27.‏
-Den Brok, B., 1992. An experimental investigation into the effect of water on the flow of quartzite: Geology Ultraject 95.
-Duuring, P., Hagemann, S.G., Banks, D.A. and Schindler, C., 2018. A synvolcanic origin for magnetite-rich orebodies hosted by BIF in the Weld Range district, Western Australia: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 93, p. 211-254.
-Duuring, P., Hagemann, S.G., Laukamp, C. and Chiarelli, L., 2019. Supergene modification of magnetite and hematite shear zones in banded iron-formation at Mt Richardson, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 111.
-Fabricio-Silva, W., Rosière, C.A. and Bühn, B., 2019. The shear zone-related gold mineralization at the Turmalina deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: structural evolution and the two stages of mineralization. Mineralium Deposita, v. 54, p. 347-368.‏
-Ferrill, D.A., 1991. Calcite twin widths and intensities as metamorphic indicators in natural low-temperature deformation of limestone: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 13, p. 667-675.
-Ferrill, D.A., Morris, A.P., Evans, M.A., Burkhard, M., Groshong Jr, R.H. and Onasch, C.M., 2004. Calcite twin morphology: a low-temperature deformation geothermometer. Journal of structural Geology, v. 26, p. 1521-1529.‏
-Frash, L.P., Carey, J.W. and Welch, N.J., 2019. Scalable en echelon shear‐fracture aperture‐roughness mechanism: Theory, validation, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 124, p. 957-977.‏
-Ghasemi, A. and Talbot, C.J., 2006. A new tectonic scenario for the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (Iran). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 26, p. 683-693.
-Gleason, G.C. and Tullis, J., 1995. A flow law for dislocation creep of quartz aggregates determined with the molten salt cell: Tectonophysics, v. 247, p. 1-23.
-Ghosh, D., Dutta, T., Samanta, S.K. and Pal, D.C., 2013. Texture, microstructure and geochemistry of magnetite from the Banduhurang uranium mine, Singhbhum Shear Zone, India—implications for physico-chemical evolution of magnetite mineralization. Journal of the Geological Society of India, v.  81, p. 101-112.‏
-Grotenhuis, S.M.T., Mica fish in mylonites, Ph. D. thesis, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz.‏
-Groshong, R.H., 1988. Low-temperature defotmation mechanisms and their interpretation: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 100, p. 1329-1376.
-Groshong, R.H., Pfiffner, O.A. and Pringle, L.R., 1984. Strain partitioning in the Helvetic thrust belt of eastern Switzerland from the leading edge to the internal zone: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 6, p. 5-18.
-Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Robert, F. and Hart, C.J.R., 2003. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance: Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 1-29.
-Hagemann, S.G., Angerer, T., Duuring, P., Rosière, C.A., Figueiredo e Silva, R.C., Lobato, L., Hensler, A.S. and Walde, D.H.G., 2016. BIF-hosted iron mineral system: a review. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 76, p. 317-359.
-Heidelbach, F., Kunze, K. and Wenk, H.R., 2000. Texture analysis of a recrystallised quartzite using electron diffraction in the scanning electron microscope. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 22, p. 91-104.
-Hirth, G. and Tullis, J., 1992. Dislocation creep regimes in quartz aggregates: Journal of Structral Geology, v. 14, p.145-159.
-Hobbs, B.E., Means, W.D. and Williams, P.F., 1976. An Outline of Structural Geology: John Wiley and sons, 571 p.
-Holyoke III, C.W. and Tullis, J., 2006. Mechanisms of weak phase interconnection and the effects of phase strength contrast on fabric development: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 28, p. 621-640.
‏-Hyman, J.D., Aldrich, G., Viswanathan, H., Makedonska, N. and Karra, S., 2016. Fracture size and transmissivity correlations: Implications for transport simulations in sparse three‐dimensional discrete fracture networks following a truncated power law distribution of fracture size. Water Resources Research, v. 52, p. 6472-6489.‏
-Jahn, B.M., Wu, F.Y. and Chen, B., 2000. Massive granitoid generation in central Asia: Nd isotope evidence and implication for continental growth in the Phanerozoic: v. 23, p. 82-92.
-Junqueira, P.A., Lobato, L.M., Ladeira, E.A. and Simões, E.J.M., 2007. Structural control and hydrothermal alteration at the BIF-hosted Raposos lode-gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 32, p. 629-650.‏
-Ji, S., 2014. Kink Bands and Recrystallization in Plagioclase. In Fault-related Rocks. Princeton University Press, p. 278-279.
‏-Kruse, R., Stünitz, H. and Kunze, K., 2001. Dynamic recrystallization processes in plagioclase porphyroclasts. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 23, p. 1781-1802.‏
-Kohlstedt, D.L., Evans, B. and Mackwell, S.J., 1995. Strength of the lithosphere: constraints imposed by laboratory experiments: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 100, p. 17587-17602.
-Koehn, D., Bons, P.D. and Passchier, C.W., 2003. Development of antitaxial strain fringes during non-coaxial deformation: an experimental study. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 263-275.‏
-Koehn, D., Hilgers, C., Bons, P.D. and Passchier, C.W., 2000. Numerical simulation of fibre growth in antitaxial strain fringes. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 22, p. 1311-1324.‏
-Leterrier, J., 1985. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic evolution of two Miocene mafic intrusions from the Zagros (Iran). Lithos, v. 18, p. 311-329.
-Lloyd, G.E., 2000. Grain boundary contact effects during faulting of quartzite: an SEM/EBSD analysis: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 22, p. 1675-1693.
-Lloyd, G.E., 2004. Microstructural evolution in a mylonitic quartz simple shear zone: the significant roles of dauphine twinning and misorientation: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 224, p. 39-61.
-Mancktelow, N.S., Arbaret, L. and Pennacchioni, G., 2002. Experimental observations on the effect of interface slip on rotation and stabilisation of rigid particles in simple shear and a comparison with natural mylonites. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 24, p. 567-585.‏
-Maskell, A., Duuring, P. and Hagemann, S.G., 2014. Hydrothermal alteration events controlling magnetite-rich iron ore at the Matthew Ridge prospect, Jack Hills greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton. Aust: Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 61, p. 187-212.
-Mohajjel, M., 1997. Structure and tectonic evolution of Paleozoic-mesozoic rocks, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia (Unpublished).
-Mohajjel, M. and Fergusson, C.L., 2000. Dextral transpression in Late Cretaceous continental collision, Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, western Iran. Journal of Structural geology, v. 8, p. 1125-1139.
‏-Mohajjel, M., Fergusson, C.L. and Sahandi, M.R., 2003. Cretaceous–Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 4, p. 397-412.
-Montesi, L.G. and Hirth, G., 2003. Grain size evolution and the rheology of ductile shear zones: from laboratory experiments to postseismic creep. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 211, p. 97-110.‏
-Mukherjee, S., 2007. Geodynamics, deformation and mathematical analysis of metamorphic belts of the NW Himalaya. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
-Mukherjee, S., 2010a. Structures at Meso-and Micro-scales in the Sutlej section of the Higher Himalayan Shear Zone in Himalaya. Terra, v. 7, p. 1-27.
-Mukherjee, S., 2010b. Microstructures of the Zanskar shear zone. Earth Science India, v. 3, p. 9-27‏.
-Mukherjee, S. and Koyi, H.A., 2010a. Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Sutlej section: structural geology and extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear and channel flow in shifting modes. International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 99, p. 1267-1303.‏
-Mukherjee, S. and Koyi, H.A., 2010b. Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Zanskar Indian Himalaya: microstructural studies and extrusion mechanism by a combination of simple shear and channel flow. International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 99, p. 1083-1110.‏
-Mukherjee, S., 2011. Mineral fish: their morphological classification, usefulness as shear sense indicators and genesis. International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 100, p. 1303-1314.‏
‏-Nishikawa, O. and Takeshita, T., 2000. Progressive lattice misorientation and microstructural development in quartz veins deformed under subgreenschist conditions: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 22, p. 259-276.
-Nishikawa, O., Saiki, K. and Wenk, H.R., 2004. Intra-granular strains and grain boundary morphologies of dynamically recrystallized quartz aggregates in a mylonite: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 26, p. 127-141.
-Niemeijer, A.R. and Spiers, C.J., 2005. Influence of phyllosilicates on fault strength in the brittle-ductile transition: Insights from rock analogue experiments: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 245, p. 303-327.‏
-Okamoto, A., Fuse, K., Shimizu, H. and Ito, T., 2020. Impact of fluid pressure on failure mode in shear zones: Numerical simulation of en-echelon tensile fracturing and transition to shear. Tectonophysics, v. 774, p. 228-277.‏
-Olson, J.E. and Pollard, D.D., 1991. The initiation and growth of en echelon veins: Journal of Struct Geol, v. 13. p. 595-608.
-Pal, D.C., Barton, M.D. and Sarangi, A.K., 2009. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U–Cu (–Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U–Cu (–Fe) deposit. Mineralium Deposita, v. 44, p. 61-80.
-Pal, D.C., Trumbull, R.B. and Wiedenbeck, M., 2010. Chemical and boron isotope compositions of tourmaline from the Jaduguda U (–Cu–Fe) deposit, Singhbhum shear zone, India: implications for the sources and evolution of mineralizing fluids. Chemical Geology, v. 277, p. 245-260.‏
‏-Pal, D.C., Chaudhuri, T., McFarlane, C., Mukherjee, A. and Sarangi, A.K., 2011a. Mineral chemistry and in situ dating of allanite, and geochemistry of its host rocks in the Bagjata Uranium Mine, Singhbhum Shear Zone, India—implications for the chemical evolution of REE mineralization and mobilization. Economic Geology, v. 106, p. 1155-1171.‏
-Pal, D.C., Sarkar, S., Mishra, B. and Sarangi, A.K., 2011. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the Jaduguda U (–Cu–Fe) deposit, Singhbhum shear zone, eastern India: Implications for sulphide mineralization. Journal of earth system science, v. 120, p. 475-488.‏
-Paschier, C.W. and Trouw, R.A.J., 2005. Microtectonics: Springer - Verlag, 289 p.
-Post, A.D., Tullis, J. and Yund, R.A., 1996. Effects of chemical environment on dislocation creep of quartzite: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 101, p. 22143-22155.
-Pennacchioni, G., Di Toro, G. and Mancktelow, N.S., 2001. Strain-insensitive preferred orientation of porphyroclasts in Mont Mary mylonites. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 23, p. 1281-1298.‏
-Rawling, G.C., Baud, P. and Wong, T.F., 2002. Dilatancy, brittle strength, and anisotropy of foliated rocks: Experimental deformation and micromechanical modeling: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 107, p. ETG-8.‏
-Rawling, G.C. and Goodwin, L.B., 2003. Cataclasis and particulate flow in faulted, poorly lithified sediments: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 317-331.
-Rosiere, C.A., Siemes, H., Quade, H., Brokmeier, H.G. and Jansen, E.M., 2001. Microstructures, textures and deformation mechanisms in hematite: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 23, p. 1429-1440.‏
-Rosiere, C.A., Spier, C.A., Rios, F.J. and Suckau, V.E., 2008. The itabirites of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and related high-grade iron ore deposits: an overview.‏
-Rosenberg, C.L. and Stünitz, H., 2003. Deformation and recrystallization of plagioclase along a temperature gradient: an example from the Bergell tonalite. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 389-408.‏
-Rui, Z.Y., Goldfarb, R., Qiu, Y.M., Zhou, T.H., Chen, R.Y., Pirajno, F. and Yun, G., 2002. Paleozoic– early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China: Mineralium Deposita, v. 37, p. 393-418.
-Sengupta, N., Mukhopadhyay, D., Sengupta, P. and Hoffbauer, R., 2005. Tourmaline-bearing rocks in the Singhbhum shear zone, eastern India: Evidence of boron infiltration during regional metamorphism. American Mineralogist, v. 90, p. 1241-1255.‏
-Stocklin, J. and Nabavi, M.H., 1973. Tectonic map of Iran, Geological Survey of Iran.
Shelley D., 1993. Igneous and metamorphic rocks under the microscope: Chapman and Hall, London.
-Shigematsu, N., 1999. Dynamic recrystallization in deformed plagioclase during progressive shear deformation: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 437-452.
-Stipp, M., Stünitz, H., Heilbronner, R. and Schmid, S.M., 2002. The eastern Tonale fault zone: a “natural laboratory” for crystal plastic deformation of quartz over a temperature range from 250 to 700 °C: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 24, p.1861-1884.
-Stipp, M., Tullis, J. and Behrens, H., 2006. The effect of water, temperature and strain rate on the dislocation creep microstructure, recystallized grain size and flow stress of quartz: In 11. Symposium Tektonik, Struktur-und Kristallingeologie, p. 222-224. Universitätsverlag Göttingen.‏
-Stipp, M. and Kunze, K., 2008. Dynamic recrystallization near the brittle-plastic transition in naturally and experimentally deformed quartz aggregates: Tectonophysics, v. 448, p. 77-97.
-Svahnberg, H. and Piazolo, S., 2010. The initiation of strain localisation in plagioclase-rich rocks: Insights from detailed microstructural analyses. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 32, p. 1404-1416.‏
-Ten Grotenhuis, S.M., Passchier, C.W. and Bons, P.D., 2002. The influence of strain localisation on the rotation behaviour of rigid objects in experimental shear zones. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 24, p. 485-499.‏
-Ten Grotenhuis, S.M., Trouw, R.A.J. and Passchier, C.W., 2003. Evolution of mica fish in mylonitic rocks: Tectonophysics, v. 372, p. 1-21.
-Treagus, S.H., 2002. Modelling the bulk viscosity of two-phase mixtures in terms of clast shape. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 24, p. 57-76.‏
-Treagus, S.H. and Lan, L., 2003. Simple shear of deformable square objects: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 25, p. 1993-2003.‏
-Treagus, S.H. and Lan, L., 2004. Deformation of square objects and boudins: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 26, p. 1361-1376.‏
-Terry, M.P. and Heidelbach, F., 2006. Deformation-enhanced metamorphic reactions and the rheology of high- pressure shear zones, Western Gneiss Region, Norway: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 24, p. 3-18.
-Trouw, R.A., Passchier, C.W. and Wiersma, D.J., 2009. Atlas of Mylonites-and related microstructures. Springer Science and Business Media, 189 p.‏
-Twiss, R.J. and Moores, E.M., 1992. Structural geology: Freeman and Company, New York, 532 p.
-Ulrich, S., Schulmann, K. and Casey, M., 2002. Microstructural evolution and rheological behaviour of marbles deformed at different crustal levels: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 24, p. 979-995.
-Wallis, D., Parsons, A.J. and Hansen, L.N., 2019. Quantifying geometrically necessary dislocations in quartz using HR-EBSD: Application to chessboard subgrain boundaries. Journal of Structural Geology, v. 125, p. 235-247.‏
‏-Wang, T., Hong, D.W., Jahn, B.M., Tong, Y., Wang, Y.B., Han, B.F. and Wang, X.X., 2006. Timing, petrogenesis, and setting of Paleozoic synorogenic intrusions from the Altai Mountains, Northwest China: implications for the tectonic evolution of an accretionary orogeny: Journal of Geology, v. 114, p. 735-751.
-Wang, T., Tong, Y., Jahn, B.M., Zou, T.R., Wang, Y.B., Hong, D.W. and Han, B.F., 2007. SHRIMP U– Pb zircon geochronology of the Altai No. 3 Pegmatite, NW China, and its implications for the origin and tectonic setting of the pegmatite: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 32, p. 325-336.
-Wang, W., Wei, C., Wang, T., Lou, Y. and Chu, H., 2009. Confirmation of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen and its geological significance: Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 54, p. 2543.‏
-Xu, J., Ding, R., Xie, Y., Zhong, C. and Shan, L., 2008. The source of hydrothermal fluids for the Sarekoubu gold deposit in the southern Altai, Xinjiang, China: evidence from fluid inclusions and geochemistry: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 32, p. 247-258.
-Xu, L., Mao, J., Yang, F. and Zheng, J., 2010. Geology, geochemistry and age constraints on the Mengku skarn iron deposit in Xinjiang Altay, NW China: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 39, p. 423-440.
-Yang, F., Mao, J., Chai, F.M., Liu, F., Zhou, G., Geng, X. and Xu, L., 2008. Ore-forming fluids and metallogenesis of Mengku iron deposit in Altay, Xinjiang: Mineral Deposits, v. 27, p. 659-680.‏
-Yang, F., Mao, J., Liu, F., Chai, F., Guo, Z., Zhou, G., Geng, X. and Gao, J., 2010. Geochronology and geochemistry of the granites from the Mengku iron deposit, Altay Mountains, northwest China: implications for its tectonic setting and metallogenesis: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 57, p. 803-818.
-Yousefi, E. and Friedberg, J.L., 1978. 1:250000 Aeromagnetic map of Sanandaj quadrant, Geological survey of Iran.
-Zheng, C., Kato, T., Enami, M. and Xu, X.C., 2007. CHIME monazite ages of metasediments from the Altai orogen in northwestern China: Devonian and Permian ages of metamorphism and their significance: Island Arc, v. 16, p. 598-604.
-Zhou, Y., Ikeuchi, K., North, T.H. and Wang, Z., 1991. Effect of plastic deformation on residual stresses in ceramic/metal interfaces: Metall. Trans. A, v. 22, p. 2822-2825.