عنوان مقاله [English]
Lower Miocene deposits in Iran have a significant expansion. In Zagros and Central Iran, these sediments include Asmari and Qom formations, respectively. Due to its economic importance and especially the possibility of reservoir and cap rocks, many studies have been conducted on the Miocene deposits in areas with high hydrocarbon potential. However, in the high Zagros, due to the limited oil reserves, the Miocene deposits have been less studied. According to the geological map of Harsin in the northern parts of the high Zagros zone (Shahidi and Nazari, 1997), the Miocene deposits consist of carbonate and clastic rocks. In terms of lithology, especially the presence of clastic rocks, these deposits are very similar to the Qom Formation, but since they are located in the high Zagros zone, it may not be correct to refer to this formation. On the other hand, the lithology and appearance of these deposits are fundamentally different from the Asmari Formation. Therefore, in this paper, like the geological map of Harsin, they are called Miocene deposits. In this paper, the paleoenvironment and microfacies of Miocene deposits in the high Zagros have been studied.
Material and methods
Three sections of Miocene deposits are studied, located 23 km south of Harsin (Figure 1).
Fig. 1. Locality map of the studied area.
In the present study, a total of 130 sections were taken. Thin sections were prepared from rock samples and isolated fossils were isolated from soft samples. Texture properties and fossil assemblages in thin sections were examined and identified by a polarizing microscope.
Based on foraminiferal distribution, the following assemblage zones are recognized:
1) Indeterminate Zone I: In view of the fact that we unable to find any index microfossils, comments on the age of this zone are difficult, which explains why this is here referred to as an indeterminate zone.
2) SBZ25: Larger benthic foraminiferal zone SBZ 25 can be divided into two subzones; those of M. globulina and M. intermedia.
2-a) M. globulina Subzone: This is defined by the FO of M. globulina at the base and the FO of M. intermedia at the top. It is regarded as a common global index for the Burdigalian Stage.
2-b) M. intermedia Subzone: This is defined by the stratigraphical range of M. intermedia, which is considered to be a characteristic form for the middle-upper Burdigalian (Cahuzac & Poignant, 1997).
1) Indeterminate Zone II: In view of the fact that we could not find any index microfossils in this zone, we here refer to it as indeterminate zone. As to its stratigraphical position, we prefer an early Langhian date for this zone.
2) Orbulina suturalis Interval Zone: Planktonic foraminifera are frequent to dominant in the upper part of the Sayl Cheshmeh section. Based on their vertical distribution, a single biozone has been recognized. This is defined by the FO of O. suturalis (Brönnimann, 1951) and ends right below the conglomerate/sandstone levels of Pliocene age
Based on the field observations, petrographic studies and textural characteristics as well as the abundance and distribution of foraminiferal fauna and other components, 7 carbonate microfacies have been identified. These carbonate microfacies were deposited in4 facies belts including lagoon, margin facies, upper slope facies and lower slope facies (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Depositional model for the platform carbonate of the Miocene deposits in the Harsin area, High Zagros Zone
The stratigraphical position and vertical and lateral dispersion of different facies along with textural features and skeletal composition, and the presence of coral reef reefs and sudden change of facies and the absence of large tidal zones of Miocene deposars in Harsin area indicate that this sequence deposited on a rimmed carbonate platform.