هدایت و مهار شهر- منطقه‌های چندمرکزی: به ‌کارگیری رهیافت برنامه‌ریزی فضایی راهبردی

نوع مقاله : علمی -پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

10.29252/esrj.9.3.1

چکیده

شهر-منطقه‌های چندمرکزی همچون یکی از انواع سیستم‌های فضایی که محصول فرایندهای شتابنده­ی رشد فضاهای اختصاص‌ یافته به فعالیت‌های انسان هستند، دارای ویژگی‌های ‌منحصر به خودشان بوده و متناسب با ماهیت و چیستی خود در رویارویی با فرایندها و روندها، رفتارهایی مختص به خود را بروز می‌دهند. در بسیاری از تجربه‌های جهانی؛ به­ویژه در جوامع کمتر توسعه ‌یافته‌ای که دارای سیستم و سازوکار برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت شهری کارآمد نیستند، درک نادرست از ماهیت این فضاها و شیوه هدایت و مهار مبتنی بر این درک نادرست، مانع دستیابی به توسعه فضایی درخور چنین سیستم‌هایی است. رهیافت‌ها و رویه‌های سنتی توان رویارویی با چنین فضاهایی را ندارند و با تداوم به­کارگیری این رویه‌ها، ساختارهای فضایی شهر-منطقه‌ها رها شده و هدایت و مهار نشده و انباشتی از مشکلات ناگشوده برجا می‌مانند. این مقاله به پشتوانه نگاه سیستمی به پدیده‌های فضایی و در نظر آوردن یک شهر-منطقه چندمرکزی همچون یک سیستم، در پی اثبات صلاحیت رهیافت برنامه‌ریزی فضایی راهبردی همچون شیوه‌ای پاسخ‌گو به چالش‌های شهر-منطقه‌های چندمرکزی است. پژوهش پایه­ی این مقاله از نوع پژوهش تبیینی است که با اختیار رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی در پی تشریح رویدادها و تبیین چگونگی ارتباط میان آن‌ها در یک چهارچوب مبتنی بر تفکر سیستمی است. دستاورد اصلی این مقاله، تحلیل مشخصه‌های منحصربه‌فرد «شهرـمنطقه‌های چندمرکزی» و دستیابی به مدل نظری هدایت و مهار آن‌ها با به‌کارگیری ابزار برنامه‌ریزی فضایی راهبردی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Guidance and Control Polycentric City-regions: Application of Spatial Strategic Planning Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Dadashpoor 1
  • Mohammad Reza Haqjou 2
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of TarbiatModarres
2 Ph.D. Student in Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of TarbiatModarres
چکیده [English]

Polycentric city- regions are the result of the increasing processes of growth in different spatial configurations. Such phenomena are particular type of spatial system that have their unique and distinctive characteristics. Misunderstanding the nature of Polycentric city-regions and their specific guidance and control mechanisms especially in developing countries, would prevent them of experiencing sustainable spatial development. Traditional planning approaches are unable to face challenges presented by such city- regions, while insisting on their continuation would lead to inextricable problems. This is despite the fact that the strategic spatial planning might address the challenge properly.
The purpose of this article is to explain and to clarify the concept of city- region in developing and developed countries; to thinking about the consequences of city- regions’ expansion; and to discuss the eligibility of spatial strategic planning as a responsive and applicable procedure to face the challenging nature of Polycentric city- regions.
This article is based on explanatory research methodology, which is followed by an analytical description of events in order to explain their relationship within the framework of systems approach. So, firstly, the theoretical and experimental frameworks related to the “polycentric city region” would be reviewed; secondly, the spatial strategic planning approach would be explained; then the challenges of guidance and control mechanisms in polycentric city- regions would be clarified; and finally, the key and strategic issue to address those challenges would be discussed.
The output of this article is the analysis of major characteristics of polycentric city- regions and the explanation of how the guidance and control mechanism of such city- regions can be assumed to be within a spatial strategic planning approach.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City-region
  • Polycentric City-regions
  • spatial planning
  • Strategic planning
-اﺳﺪی، ا. و زﺑﺮدﺳﺖ، ا.، 1389. ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‌ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﻬﺮ- ﺑﻨﻴﺎد در ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﺷﻬﺮی و ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‌ای با نظری ﺑﺮ واﻛﺎوی ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺷﻬﺮی در اﻳﺮان، ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎی زﻳﺒﺎ - ﻣﻌﻤﺎری و ﺷﻬﺮﺳﺎزی، ﺷﻤﺎره 43، ص 17-30.
-دانشپور، ز.، 1394. کتاب درآمدی بر نظریه‌های برنامه‌ریزی با تاکید ویژه بر برنامه‌ریزی شهری، چاپ سوم، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی. 600 ص.
-مرادی مسیحی، و.، 1381. برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک در کلان شهرها به ضمیمه برنامه استراتژیک لندن، تهران: انتشارات پردازش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 252 ص.
-صرافی، م.، 1381. بنیادهای توسعه پایدار کلان شهر تهران، مجله شهروندمداری، شماره 11.
-Albrechts, L. , 2012. Reframing Strategic Spatial Planning by using a Coproduction Perspective. Planning Theory, v.12, p. 63-64.
-Albrechts, L., 2006. Shift in Strategic Spatial Planning? Some Evidence from Europe and Australia, Environment and Planning, v. 38, p. 1149-1170.
-Albrechts, L., 2004. Strategic (spatial) Planning Reexamined, Environment and Planning, v. 31, p. 743-758.
-Albrecht, L., 2001. In pursuit of new approach to strategic spatial planning: a European perspective International Planning Studies, v. 6, p. 293-310.
-Albrechts, L. and Lievois, G., 2003. Flemish Diamond in Planning Polycentric Urban Regions in North West Europe: Value, feasibility and design, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies Delft University of Technology, Netherland, p. 81-118.
-Bailey, N. and Turok, I., 2001. Central Scotland as a Polycentric Urban Region: Useful Planning Concept or Chimera? Urban Studies, v.38, p. 697-715.
-Berg, van den L. and Braun, E., 1999. `Urban Competitiveness, Marketing and the Need for Organising Capacity' , Urban Studies, v.36, p. 987-999.
-Bryson, J., 2003. Strategic Planning and Managing, In G. Peters, & J. Pierre, handbook of Public Administration. London: Sage, 840 p.
-Burger, M.J. and Meijers, E.J., 2010. Forms follow function? Linking morphological and functional polycentricity, GaWC Research Bulletin, 344 p.
-Capello, R., Nijkamp, P. and Pepping, G., 1999. Sustainable Cities and Energy Policies, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 284 p.
-Champion, A.G., 2001. A changing demographic regime and evolving polycentric urban regions – consequences for the size, composition and distribution of city populations, Urban Studies, v. 38, p. 657-677.
-Chattopadhyay, S. and Aniyan, P., 2000. Spatial Planning: Scope of Kerala's Experiment in People's Campaign for Decentralized Planning. International Conference on Democratic Decentralization, Kerala, India: State Planning Board.
-Cheshire, P. and Hay, D.G., 1989. Urban Problems in Western Europe: an Economic Analysis. Hyman, 284 p.
-Davoudi, S., 2005. Can Polycentric Development Enhance Competitiveness and Cohesion, Espon/SPAN Seminar, Queens university Belfast.
-Davoudi, S., 2003. Polycentricity in European spatial planning: From an analytical tool to a normative agenda, European Planning Studies, v. 11, p. 979- 999.
-De Goei, B., Burger, M.J., Van Oort, F.G. and Kitson, M., 2010. Functional polycentrism and urban network development in the Greater South East UK: Evidence from commuting patterns, 1981-2001. Regional Studies, v. 44, p. 1149-1170.
-Dyson, R.G., 1990. Strategic Planning: Models and Analytical Techniques, Chichester, Wiley in Europe.
-EPSON., 2004. Potentials for polycentric development, EPSON, Luxembourg.
-Goncalves, J. and Ferreira, J.A., 2015. The planning of strategy: a contribution to the improvement of spatial planning, Land Use Policy Journal, v. 45, p. 86-94.
-Green, N., 2007. Functional Polycentricity: A definition in terms of social network analysis. Urban Studies, v. 44, p. 2077-2103.
-Hall, P. and Pain, K., 2006. The Polycentric Metropolis Learning from mega-city regions in Europe, London: Earthscan, 246 p.
-Haughton, G., Allmendinger, P., Counsell, D. and Vigar, G., 2010. The New Spatial Planning; Territorial management with soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries, New York: Routledge, 288 p.
-Healey, P., 2007. Urban complexity and spatial strategies: towards a relational planning for our time, Routledge, 352 p.
-Healey, P., 1997. Collaborative Planning; Shaping Place in Fragmented Societies, Palgrave McMillan, 446 p.
-Hoyler, M., Kloosterman, R. and Sokol, M., 2008. Polycentric puzzles – Emerging Mega-City- regions seen through the lens of advanced producer services, Regional Studies, v. 42, p. 1055-1064.
-Ipenburg, D. and Lambregts, B., 2001. Polynuclear Urban Regions in North West Europe, A survey of key actor views, Delft (IOP Press), 135 p.
-Keating, M., 2001. Governing Cities and Regions: Territorial Restructuring in a Global Age, in: Scott, A.J. (ed.), Global City- regions, Trends, Theory, Policy, Oxford (Oxford University Press), p. 371-390.
-Kloosterman, R.C. and Lambregts, B., 2001. Clustering of Economic Activities in Polycentric Urban Regions: the case of the Randstad, Urban Studies, v. 38, p. 717-732.
-Mantysalo, R., Kangasoja, J.K. and Kanninen, V., 2015. The Paradox of Strategic Spatial Planning: A Theoretical Outline with a View on Finland, Progress in Physical Geography, v. 32, p. 491-502.
-Meijers, E. and Burger, M.J., 2010. ‘Spatial structure and productivity in US metropolitan areas’, Environment and Planning A, v. 42, p. 1383-1402.
-Meijers, E., 2007. Synergy in Polycentric Urban Regions: Complementarity, Organising Capacity and Critical Mass, Delft Centre for Sustainable Urban Areas, IOS Press, Netherland, Delf, 192 p.
-Meijers, E., 2006. The notion of complementarity in urban networks: definition, value, measurement and development, presented at the 10th UNECE
-Meijers, E., 2005. Polycentric Urban Regions and the Quest for Synergy: Is a Network of Cities More than the Sum of the Parts? Urban Studies, v. 42, p. 765- 781.
-Meijers, E., 2002. Building Regional Policy Networks: a Development Strategy for Policentric Urban Region, Paper presented at the EURA Confrence Urban and Spatial European Policies,Turin.
-Nadin, V., 2007. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England,
Planning Practice & Research, v. 22, p. 43-62.
-Newman, P., 2000. Changing Patterns of Regional Governance in the EU, Urban Studies, v. 37 , p. 895-908.
-Pain, K., 2008. City-regions and economic development, In C. Johnson, R. Hu & S. Abedin (Eds.), Connecting Cities: City-Regions A Research Publication for the 9th World Congress of Metropolis, Sydney: Metropolis Congress.
-Parr, B.J., 2005. Perspectives on the City-Region, Regional Studies, v. 39, p. 555- 566.
-Pomilio, F., 2000. Strategic Land use Planning, a Review Article from Town Planning Review, p. 1968-2000.
-Porter, E.M., 2001. Regions and the New Economics of Competition, in Scott, A (ed.) Global City – Region: Trends, Theory, Policy, Oxford Press, 496 p.
-Rodriguez-Pose, A., 2008. The Rise of the “City-region” Concept and its Development Policy Implications, European Planning Studies, v. 16, p. 1025-1046.
-Romein, A. and Meijers, A., 2003. Realizing Potential: Building Regional Organizing Capacity in Polycentric Urban Regions, European Urban and Regional Studies, v. 10 , p. 173-186.
-Romein, A., 2004. Spatial Planning in Competitive Polycentric Urben Regions: some Practical Lessons from Northwest Europe, Paper submitted to city futures conference chicago.
-Scott, A.J., 1997. The cultural economy of cities. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, v. 21, p. 323-339.
-Scott, A.J., 2001. Globalisation and the rise of city-regions, European Planning Studies, v. 9, p. 813-826.
-Scott, A.J., 2001a. Introduction, in: A. J. Scott (Ed.) Global City-regions, p. 1-10 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
-Scott, A.J., Edward, W. J. S. and Storper, M., 2003. Global City-Regions: An Overview. Oxford University Press, 496 p.
-Schmitt, P., Knapp, W. and Kunzmann, K.R., 2003. RheinRuhr in Planning Polycentric Urban Regions in North West Europe: Value, feasibility and design, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies Delft University of Technology, Netherland, p. 154-196.
-Susilo, Y.O. and Maat, K., 2007. The influence of built environment to the trends in commuting journeys in Netherlands, Transportation, v. 34, p. 589-609.
-Turok, I. and Bailey, N., 2004. the theory of polycentic urban regions and its application to central Scotland, European planning studies, v. 12, p. 371-387
-Van Houtum, H. and Lagendijk, A., 2001. Contextualising Regional Identity and Imagination in the Construction of Polycentric Urban Regions: The Cases of the Ruhr Area and the Basque Country, Urban Studies, v. 38, p. 747-767.
-Van der Laan, L., 1998. Changing urban systems: an empirical analysis at two spatial levels, Regional Studies, v. 32, p. 235-249.
-Van Oort, F., Burger, M. and Raspe, O., 2010. On the economic foundation of the urban network paradigm, Spatial integration, functional integration and economic complementarities within the Dutch Randstad, Urban Studies, v. 47, p. 725-748.
-Veneri, P. and Burgalassi, D., 2011. Spatial structure and productivity in Italian NUTS-3 Regions, Universita Politecnica Delle Marche, Quaderno Di Ricerca, 364 p.
-Veneri, P. and Burgalassi, D., 2010. Questioning polycentric development and its effects: issues of definition and measurement for the Italian NUTS 2 Regions, MPRA Paper 26410, University Library of Munich, Germany.
-Wheeler, S., 2008. Regions, megaregions and sustainability, Regional Studies, v. 43, p. 863-876.
-Zonneveld, W. and Priemus, H., 2003. What are corridors and what are the issues? Introductionto special issue: the governance of corridors, Journal of Transport Geography, v. 11, p. 167-177.